All physical confrontations happen within the following ranges. They are characterized by the distance and control between you and your opponent.
Range 1-Outside Striking
Range 2-Inside Striking
Range 3-Stand-Up Grappling
Range 4-Ground Grappling
These ranges were designed by C.U.M.A. Combatives founder Waysun Johnny Tsai. They are a simple way to view a physical confrontation with both armed and unarmed opponents. Although you may have a high level of skill in some of the ranges, the one that you are weak in can negate all of your former training.
Range 1 is where full extension punches and kicks can hit with maximum power. In this stage you have the greatest mobility to evade attacks and possibly run away. You will also have the least amount of control over your opponent.
Range 2 is where shorter strikes like knees and elbows are the most applicable attacks. Defense may be difficult in this stage due to the lack of reaction time because of the proximity to an opponent. The advantage is that more attacks can be thrown in a shorter amount of time from a wide array of angles.
Range 3 is where grabs and holds occur while standing. Holds may be used defensively to prevent strikes from hitting you or offensively to choke an opponent unconscious. Holds can be done to the body as well as clothes, hair, and bags.
Range 4 is where one person is being held on the ground. This can be seen as a sexual assault, being stomped, or a submission being applied. This stage has the least amount of mobility and the weakest strikes from the bottom. Therefore having the ability to move in and out of Range 4 is valuable..
A.R.C. (All Range Combat) is the ability to move strategically through the ranges. If you are grabbed, can you strike your way to Range 1 and run or reverse the hold, take them down, and call for help? Self-defense is mastery of these ranges with both combative and de-escalation skills against single or multiple opponents who may be armed.